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Cough

Illustration

That nagging cough may be due to a common cold or a number of other infections. According to research or other evidence, the following self-care steps may help you stop the coughing and care for your lungs:

What you need to know

  • Try traditional herbs
  • Relieve coughing with herbal remedies containing marshmallow, sundew, thyme, coltsfoot, or slippery elm
  • Get a checkup
  • Visit your healthcare provider if your cough lasts longer than two weeks, or if you think you are coughing up blood

These recommendations are not comprehensive and are not intended to replace the advice of your doctor or pharmacist. Continue reading the full cough article for more in-depth, fully-referenced information on medicines, vitamins, herbs, and dietary and lifestyle changes that may be helpful.

About cough

A cough is a symptom of many diseases. Most coughs come from simple viral infections, such as the common cold. Sometimes, but not always, mucus is produced with the cough. If the color is green or yellow, it may be a hint of a bacterial infection, although this is not always a reliable indicator. If the color is red, there may be bleeding in the lungs. Any cough that produces blood or blood-stained mucus, as well as any cough that lasts more than two weeks, requires a visit to a medical professional for diagnosis.

Product ratings for a cough

Science Ratings Nutritional Supplements Herbs
1Star  

Anise

Bloodroot

Catnip

Coltsfoot

Comfrey

Elecampane

Eucalyptus

Horehound

Hyssop

Ivy leaf

Licorice

Lobelia

Mallow

Marshmallow

Mullein

Onion

Pennyroyal

Plantain

Red clover

Slippery elm

Sundew

Thyme

Usnea

Wild cherry

See also:  Homeopathic Remedies for Cough
3Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
2Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.
1Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support and/or minimal health benefit.

Medical options

Over-the-counter drug treatment involves the use of the antitussive dextromethorphan (DM), found in combination with other drugs (Robitussin DM®, Mucinex DM®, Vicks 44 Cough Relief®). Coughing forces the expectoration of infectious organisms and congested secretions; consequently, a cough should not be suppressed during the day.

Prescription drugs used to suppress cough include combination products containing codeine (Robitussin AC®, Phenergan® with Codeine) and hydrocodone (Vicodin Tuss®, Tussionex®, Hycodan®).

People with coughs lasting longer than a week, or associated with a fever, rash, or a persistent headache should talk to their doctor. A chronic, persistent cough requires medical attention in order to determine the underlying cause.

Herbs that may be helpful

A number of herbs have a rich history of use for treating coughs due to colds, bronchitis, or other mild conditions. Only a few studies have examined the effectiveness of these herbs. However, their effectiveness is well-known by practitioners of herbal medicine the world over. Among those herbs that have been shown to have some degree of cough-relieving activity are marshmallow,1 sundew,2 and coltsfoot.3 Use of coltsfoot should be limited to preparations of the leaves and flowers only, as the root is high in pyrrolizidine alkaloids, constituents that may be toxic to the liver.

Thyme has a long history of use in Europe for the treatment of dry, spasmodic coughs as well as for bronchitis.4 Many constituents in thyme team up to provide its antitussive (preventing and treating a cough), antispasmodic, and expectorant actions. The primary constituents are the volatile oils, which include the phenols thymol and carvacol.5 These are complemented by the actions of flavonoids along with saponins. Thyme, either alone or in combination with herbs such as sundew, continues to be one of the most commonly recommended herbs in Europe for the treatment of dry, spasmodic coughs as well as for whooping cough.6 Because of its apparent safety, it has become a favorite for treating coughs in small children.

The active constituents in anise(Pimpinella anisum), particularly the terpenoid anethole, give this plant a delightful flavor. As an antispasmodic, it helps in gently relieving spasmodic coughs.7

The mucilage of slippery elm gives it a soothing effect for coughs. Usnea also contains mucilage, which may be helpful in easing irritating coughs. There is a long tradition of using wild cherry syrups to treat coughs. Other traditional remedies to relieve coughs include bloodroot, catnip, comfrey (the above-ground parts, not the root), horehound, elecampane, mullein, lobelia, hyssop, licorice, mallow, (Malvia sylvestris),red clover, ivy leaf, pennyroyal (Hedeoma pulegioides, Mentha pulegium),onion, (Allium cepa), and plantain (Plantago lanceolata, P. major). None of these has been investigated in human trials, so their true efficacy for relieving coughs is unknown.

The early 19th-century Eclectic physicians in the United States (who used herbs as their main medicine) not only employed eucalyptus oil to sterilize instruments and wounds but also recommended a steam inhalation of the oil’s vapor to help treat asthma, bronchitis, whooping cough, and emphysema.8

Are there any side effects or interactions?
Refer to the individual herb for information about any side effects or interactions.

Holistic approaches that may be helpful

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) may be helpful in the treatment of a cough. Cupping (the use of a glass cup to create suction over a skin surface) is a traditional Chinese therapy, often used for patients to help relieve a cough. An uncontrolled study using cupping to relieve coughs reported a curative response in 35 of 41 patients.9 Other TCM therapies, including acupuncture and herbal medicine, may be helpful in cough-producing ailments such as asthma and bronchitis.

References:

1. Nosal’ova G, Strapkova A, Kardosova A, et al. Antitussive action of extracts and polysaccharides of marshmallow (Althea officinalis L, var robusta). Pharmazie 1992;47:224–6 [in German].

2. Schilcher H. Phytotherapy in Paediatrics. Stuttgart: Medpharm Scientific Publishers, 1997, 38.

3. Wichtl M, Bisset N (eds). Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. Stuttgart: Medpharm Scientific Publishers and Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1994.

4. Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1996, 492–5.

5. Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C. PDR for Herbal Medicines. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics, 1998, 1184–5.

6. Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Gothenburg, Sweden: Ab Arcanum and Beaconsfield, UK: Beaconsfield Publishers Ltd, 1988, 208–9.

7. Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Gothenberg, Sweden: Ab Arcanum and Beaconsfield,UK: Beaconsfield Publishers Ltd, 1985:203–4.

8. Castleman M. The Healing Herbs. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, 1991, 162–3.

9. Liu X. Treatment of cough in children by cupping on back. J Tradit Chin Med 1996;16:125.

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