Also indexed as: Wheat Flour, White Flour
Preparation, uses, and tips
Substitute spelt or Kamut® for wheat flour in many recipes; add
specialty flours like amaranth or teff to cakes and breads to increase flavor and nutrition; use flour as
a base for sauces and gravies. Rice flour is available for those with wheat allergies.
Chickpea and lentil flour, used in Indian cooking, are available at specialty markets. Soy flour can be used to replace wheat flours in
many recipes, but it works poorly for foods like bread, as it is low in gluten.
Wheat flour is by far the most common in the United States, but nearly any grain can be
made into flour. Even seeds and legumes can be finely ground this way. No matter the variety,
flour is generally available in several forms.
Bleached, all-purpose flour
This is a blend of high-gluten hard wheat and low-gluten soft wheat, which makes it
suitable for all baking and cooking needs. Self-rising all-purpose flour includes baking soda
and salt. Bleaching is often done chemically; it also occurs naturally as flour ages.
Refined flour, refined white flour
Refined flour is flour from which the nutritious (and more perishable) bran and germ layers
have been removed.
Fortified flour refers to an all-purpose flour, usually wheat, to which nutrients like thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin, removed during refining, have been added
This is a whole wheat flour that has had about 80 percent of its bran sifted off. It may
also be called “unbleached flour” or “reduced bran flour.”
In this milling process high-velocity steel hammerheads are used to powder whole grains at
ultra-high speed. The method generates a great deal of heat and can destroy nutrients.
In this milling process steel rollers or cylinders are used to grind grains at high speed.
A great deal of heat is generated, causing nutrients to be destroyed.
Stone-milled (stone-ground) flour
This milling process employs a pair of ridged stones to crush and grind grains slowly,
without creating heat that can destroy nutrients. The ground flour is sifted to catch larger
particles of bran and germ, which are then ground again and mixed with the rest of the flour
to produce a more nutritious flour.
Flour (whole-grain, wheat), 1 cup (115g)
Total Fat: 2.2g
*Excellent source of: Magnesium (165mg), Selenium (84.8mcg), and Niacin (7.6mg)
*Good source of: Folate (52.8mcg)
*Foods that are an “excellent source” of a particular
nutrient provide 20% or more of the Recommended Daily Value. Foods that are a “good
source” of a particular nutrient provide between 10 and 20% of the Recommended Daily